Community Energy Systems and Sustainable Energy Transitions in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mozambique (CESET)


CESET explores the potential of community energy to accelerate inclusive and clean energy transitions in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mozambique.


Energy challenges in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mozambique



  • Although substantial progress has been made in recent years Ethiopia still needs electricity for 56% of its population;
  • 90% of Ethiopia's population still relies on biomass for cooking;
  • Ethiopia’s National Electrification Program (2017) sets out to achieve 100% electrification by 2025.


  • More than 70% of Mozambique’s 28.8 million inhabitants still lack access to electricity. In rural areas, access gaps are even more pronounced, with only 5.7% of the population using electricity for lighting;

  • 85% of domestic energy needs are addressed through the use of biomass from forest resources, predominantly for cooking (95% in rural areas);

  • The country’s National Electrification Strategy sets out to achieve universal access to electricity by 2030. 


  • Malawi is one of the least electrified countries in the world.  Only 18% of the country's 18.14 million inhabitants have access to electricity;
  • 85 % of the population relies on traditional biomass as their main energy source;
  • The Malawi Rural Electrification Programme has invested in off-grid community energy to address energy access gaps. Drawing lessons from this program will be particularly important to support the design and implementation of future efforts towards community-centered off-grid electrification.


We believe CESET has the potential to create new trans sectoral capacity to deliver community-led energy solutions in the Southern and East African regions. CESET will generate unique and insightful research on the financing, implementation and evaluation of sustainable energy projects in low income, peri-urban contexts. This will be particularly useful for organisations such as ourselves, who aim to address energy gaps faced by the most vulnerable in our communities

​​​​​​​Fátima Arthur, Executive Director for People and Corporate Services, Electricidade de Moçambique - a state-owned Company set up in 1977 to generate, transmit, commercialise electricity in Mozambique